Market Equilibrium is one of the most important concepts in economics. It is a market state where the supply of goods is equal to the demand of goods in the market.
At this point, the allocation of goods is at its most efficient because the amount of goods being supplied is exactly the same as the amount of goods being demanded. Thus, everyone (individuals, firms, or countries) is satisfied with the current economic condition. At the given price, suppliers are selling all the goods that they have produced and consumers are getting all the goods that they are demanding.
As we can see on the chart, equilibrium occurs at the intersection of the demand and supply curve, which indicates no allocate inefficiency. At this point, the price of the goods will be P1 and the quantity will be Q1. These figures are referred to as equilibrium price and quantity.
If the price is set too high, excess supply will be created within the economy and there will be allocate inefficiency.
At price P2 the quantity of goods that the firms wish to supply is indicated by Q2. At P2, however, the quantity that the consumers want to consume is at Q1, a quantity much less than Q2. Because Q2 is greater than Q1, too much is being produced and too little is being consumed. The firms are trying to produce more goods, which they hope to sell to increase profits, but those consuming the goods will find the product less attractive and purchase less because the price is too high. So the firms have to reduce prices to P1. It is the state where market is at equilibrium.
Excess demand is created when price is set below the equilibrium price. Because the price is so low, too many consumers want the good while producers are not making enough of it.
In this situation, at price P2, the quantity of goods demanded by consumers at this price is Q2. Conversely, the quantity of goods that firms are willing to produce at this price is Q1. Thus, there are too few goods being produced to satisfy the wants (demand) of the consumers. However, as firms have to compete with one another to buy the good at this price, the demand will push the price up, making suppliers want to supply more and bringing the price closer to its equilibrium.
In the real market place equilibrium can only ever be reached in theory, so the prices of goods and services are constantly changing in relation to fluctuations in demand and supply.
Shifts vs. Movements:
For economics, the “movements” and “shifts” in relation to the supply and demand curves represent very different market phenomena:
A movement refers to a change along a curve. On the demand curve, a movement denotes a change in both price and quantity demanded from one point to another on the curve. The movement implies that the demand relationship remains consistent. Therefore, a movement along the demand curve will occur when the price of the good changes and the quantity demanded changes in accordance to the original demand relationship. In other words, a movement occurs when a change in the quantity demanded is caused only by a change in price, and vice versa.
Like a movement along the demand curve, a movement along the supply curve means that the supply relationship remains consistent. Therefore, a movement along the supply curve will occur when the price of the good changes and the quantity supplied changes in accordance to the original supply relationship. In other words, a movement occurs when a change in quantity supplied is caused only by a change in price, and vice versa.
A shift in a demand or supply curve occurs when a good’s quantity demanded or supplied changes even though price remains the same. For instance, if the price for a bottle of beer was $2 and the quantity of beer demanded increased, then there would be a shift in the demand for beer. Shifts in the demand curve imply that the original demand relationship has changed, meaning that quantity demand is affected by a factor other than price. A shift in the demand relationship would occur if, for instance, beer suddenly became the only type of alcohol available for consumption.
Conversely, if the price for a bottle of beer was $2 and the quantity supplied decreased, then there would be a shift in the supply of beer. Like a shift in the demand curve, a shift in the supply curve implies that the original supply curve has changed, meaning that the quantity supplied is affected by a factor other than price. A shift in the supply curve would occur if, for instance, a natural disaster caused a mass shortage of hops; beer manufacturers would be forced to supply less beer for the same price.
Written and explained by ( Aysha Nasim )
M.Phil Economics – Preston university