Arbitrage is fundamentally purchasing a security in one market and at the same time offering it in another market at a higher cost, benefiting from an impermanent distinction in costs. This is viewed as risk-less benefit for the financial specialist/merchant. With regards to money markets, dealers regularly attempt to abuse arbitrage openings. For instance, a dealer may purchase a stock on a foreign exchange where the cost has not yet balanced for the continually fluctuating exchange rate. The cost of the stock on the foreign exchange is hence underestimated contrasted with the cost on the local exchange, and the dealer can have a profit from this effect.
For example, if a Company’s stocks trades at $5.00 per share on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and the equivalent of $5.05 on the London Stock Exchange (LSE), an arbitrageur would purchase the stock for $5 on the NYSE and sell it on the LSE for $5.05 — pocketing the difference of $0.05 per share.
Theoretically, the prices on both exchanges should be the same at all times, but arbitrage opportunities arise when they’re not. In theory, arbitrage is a risk-less activity because traders are simply buying and selling the same amount of the same asset at the same time. That’s why, it is often referred to as “risk-less profit.”
Arbitrageurs additionally attempt to exploit price contrasts made by mergers. In some cases, they buy the shares of organizations that are the objectives of procurement offers, wanting to stash the contrast between the trading price and the eventual cash payment coming about because of the merger. Despite the fact that this sort of methodology is alluded to as “arbitrage,” it’s somewhat of a misnomer on the grounds that there’s dependably a hazard that a merger will not really happen. Since it’s not hazard free, merger arbitrage is not “arbitrage” in its most genuine sense.